The Case for Intermediaries: Enhancing the Not-for-Profit Sector in Libya

In Libya, the not-for-profit sector plays an indispensable role in the national fabric, delivering essential services and support across a broad spectrum, from humanitarian relief and community development to healthcare and education. These services are particularly vital in a nation still reeling from prolonged conflict and ongoing political instability. Despite the crucial role these organisations fulfill, they frequently encounter substantial challenges that impede their operational efficacy.

The landscape of Libyan non-profits comprises a diverse array of entities, including local NGOs, international NGOs, and community-based groups, all operating within a context of constrained resources and regulatory uncertainty. These organisations regularly grapple with issues surrounding sustainable funding, resource management, and a legal framework that can change unpredictably in line with the volatile political climate.

Furthermore, the cultural context in Libya, deeply embedded with traditions of community aid and philanthropy, presents fertile ground for developing an organised charitable sector. Yet, this potential often remains untapped due to the absence of mechanisms to effectively channel charitable contributions and international aid transparently and accountably.

Intermediaries, acting as conduits between funders and non-profit entities, offer a promising solution to these impediments. By mediating funding, delivering capacity-building services, and ensuring adherence to both international and local standards, intermediaries can enhance the operational capabilities of NGOs. This enhancement not only elevates their efficiency but also expands their impact on the Libyan populace.

The introduction of intermediary organisations into Libya’s not-for-profit sector could transform the existing framework, forging a more interconnected, effective, and resilient system for social change. This report explores the potential roles intermediaries could play in Libya, analysing how they could contribute to a more robust, coordinated charitable landscape that leverages both local and international resources to meet the country’s diverse needs.

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Libya’s Charity Landscape

Libya accommodates a spectrum of non-profit organisations and NGOs, predominantly engaged in humanitarian relief, development projects, and community rebuilding within post-conflict environments. These entities frequently face challenging operational conditions marked by erratic funding and insufficient administrative support. While Libyan philanthropy is rooted in strong communal support and charitable acts, it generally lacks the organised, large-scale philanthropic initiatives prevalent in more stable regions.

Key Challenges:

  • Funding Accessibility: Local NGOs face significant hurdles in securing international funding, impeded by stringent compliance demands and low visibility.
  • Operational Efficiency: A shortage of professional capacity and strategic planning impairs the delivery of effective programmes.
  • Regulatory Environment: A fluid legal framework governing charities in Libya complicates adherence to compliance standards and disrupts operational stability.

The Role of Intermediaries

In Libya’s complex not-for-profit sector, intermediaries stand to play a transformative role. By bridging the gap between funders and NGOs, intermediaries can significantly enhance the efficiency, reach, and impact of humanitarian efforts. Their roles are multifaceted, each addressing specific needs within the sector to create a more effective and sustainable philanthropic environment.

  • Capacity Building: Intermediaries possess the unique capability to strengthen the operational effectiveness of NGOs through targeted capacity-building initiatives. This encompasses the delivery of tailored training programs designed to enhance skills in project management, financial stewardship, and strategic planning. By increasing professional capacity, intermediaries help ensure that NGOs are not only more effective in their current operations but are also better prepared for future challenges. Moreover, this role extends to management support, where intermediaries provide ongoing mentorship and consultancy, thereby fostering a culture of continuous improvement and adaptation within Libyan NGOs.
  • Funding Distribution: One of the critical functions of intermediaries is to facilitate the flow of funds from international donors to local NGOs. This is particularly crucial in Libya, where many NGOs struggle to meet the stringent compliance requirements set by international funding bodies. Intermediaries act as trusted partners, ensuring that funds are not only distributed efficiently but also utilised in full compliance with both local and international standards. They play a pivotal role in ensuring that donor intentions and NGO needs are aligned, which maximises the impact of each dollar spent. Furthermore, by managing the funds, intermediaries can implement monitoring and evaluation systems that provide feedback to donors, enhancing transparency and accountability.
  • Advocacy: Intermediaries also serve as powerful advocates for the non-profit sector. They can represent the collective interests of NGOs at both national and international levels, pushing for policies that favour the growth and sustainability of the sector. In Libya, where the regulatory environment for charities is still developing, intermediaries can influence policy-making by providing data-driven insights and compelling advocacy that highlight the critical role of the not-for-profit sector in national development. Additionally, intermediaries can campaign for increased funding, argue for tax reforms that benefit charitable giving, and work towards a more favourable operational environment for NGOs.

Implementing Intermediary Organisations in Libya

Implementing intermediary organisations in Libya involves strategic steps that are essential to the establishment of a robust framework, capable of navigating and enhancing the country’s not-for-profit sector. These steps include detailed assessments, pilot programmes, partnerships, and an emphasis on transparency and trust.

Strategic Steps:

  • Assessment and Mapping: A thorough assessment and mapping of the current not-for-profit sector are critical to identifying the specific needs and opportunities where intermediaries can add substantial value. This should involve a detailed analysis of existing NGOs, their operational challenges, funding mechanisms, and impact areas. By understanding the landscape in-depth, intermediaries can identify gaps in services, inefficiencies in funding flows, and areas where NGOs lack critical capabilities. Such comprehensive evaluations will enable intermediaries to tailor their services effectively, ensuring that they address the most pressing needs and capitalize on opportunities to enhance sector efficiency and impact.
  • Pilot Programmes: Implementing pilot programmes with selected NGOs is a strategic approach to refine the intermediary model. These pilots should focus on a variety of contexts within Libya, from urban centres to more remote areas, covering different sectors such as healthcare, education, and community development. By testing the intermediary model in diverse settings, insights can be gathered on what strategies work best in specific contexts. This phase is crucial for adapting the intermediary framework based on tangible feedback and outcomes, allowing for adjustments before a full-scale roll-out.
  • Partnerships and Collaboration: Establishing strategic alliances with international donor agencies, local government entities, and the private sector is essential to underpinning the intermediary framework. These partnerships can provide both funding and expertise, crucial for building the capacities of local NGOs. Collaborations with government bodies can also facilitate a more conducive regulatory environment for the operations of both intermediaries and NGOs. Engaging the private sector could leverage corporate social responsibility initiatives to support development projects, adding a sustainable funding stream.
  • Transparency and Trust Building: Developing clear guidelines and protocols is vital to fostering trust among all stakeholders, ensuring transparency in operations and financial management. This involves setting up systems that allow for regular reporting, auditing, and sharing of results with all involved parties—donors, NGOs, government agencies, and the public. By maintaining high standards of accountability, intermediaries can build credibility and trust that are essential for long-term partnerships and continuous funding.

Challenges and Considerations

While the introduction of intermediaries in Libya holds significant promise, several challenges could impede their successful implementation:

  • Political and Security Instability: The ongoing political and security instability in Libya poses a significant risk to the consistent and reliable operations of intermediaries. Changes in governance or civil unrest can disrupt planned activities and threaten the sustainability of initiatives. Intermediaries must develop robust contingency plans and flexible operational strategies to navigate these challenges effectively.
  • Cultural Sensitivity: For intermediaries to be truly effective, they must possess a deep understanding of and integrate into the local cultural context. This includes respecting local customs, religious beliefs, and social norms, which are crucial for building relationships and ensuring the acceptance and effectiveness of their programmes within Libyan communities.
  • Resource Allocation: Efficient management and allocation of resources are paramount to prevent duplication of efforts and maximize the impact across the sector. Intermediaries should use strategic planning and performance metrics to ensure resources are used effectively and directed towards initiatives that offer the highest return in terms of community impact and sustainability.

Addressing these challenges with careful planning and strategic actions will be crucial for intermediaries to establish a strong presence and achieve lasting impacts in Libya’s evolving not-for-profit sector.


The introduction of intermediary organisations in Libya could revolutionize the not-for-profit sector, enhancing effectiveness and extending reach. By streamlining funding, bolstering capacity building, and advocating for sector-friendly policies, intermediaries can make charitable efforts in Libya sustainable and impactful, aligning them with the broader objectives of national development and reconciliation.These organisations are vital for improving the distribution and use of resources, ensuring that investments are targeted where most needed.

Capacity building initiatives implemented by intermediaries will raise professional standards and empower local NGOs, enhancing their sustainability and enabling them to tackle more significant challenges effectively. Moreover, as advocates, intermediaries will represent the sector’s interests, influencing policies that support a conducive environment for NGOs to thrive.

By establishing a robust intermediary framework, Libya can secure a thriving non-profit sector that contributes significantly to the nation’s peace, stability, and development, thereby enhancing the well-being and resilience of its people.


This report benefits from discussions with stakeholders across the Libyan non-profit sector, whose contributions have been essential in shaping its strategic recommendations. Their expertise and insights have provided a comprehensive view of how intermediary organisations could impact Libya’s not-for-profit landscape.

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